Continued from Mitigation strategies
You can also download the final report (PDF document, 37 pages in total).


Kinetic modelling
Kinetic modelling of the formation of neo-formed contaminants during food processing is a valuable tool to obtain insights into the chemical pathways for their formation, and possible effects of food processing and ingredients on the formation. These insights can be used to developed mitigation measures for the presence of the neo-formed contaminations in the foods.

With multi-response kinetic modelling several chemical compounds (ingredients, intermediates or products that are related to the compound of interest) are measured at certain time-temperatures points and their kinetics is modeled at once. The multi-response kinetic modelling approach was applied in the project, amongst others, to understand the formation of acrylamide and HMF during the baking of biscuits. In the experiments, biscuits were baked at 200°C for 15 minutes.
Every 2 minutes, biscuit samples were collected and analysed for the following seven target compounds: sucrose, fructose, glucose, asparagine, total amino acids, acrylamide and HMF. Then, multi-response kinetic models were applied to the experimental data, and the best fitting model was obtained.

The final model, globally, suggests that:
1. Both the reducing sugars are involved in acrylamide and HMF generation;
2. The rate of acrylamide generation through the generic amino acids pathway is slightly higher for glucose than for fructose;
3. The rate of conversion of glucose to fructose is higher than that from fructose to glucose.

The obtained results have improved scientific knowledge on formation of acrylamide and HMF in biscuits. In fact, they represent the first kinetic models for formation of these neo-formed contaminants in bakery products baked under real production conditions.

More information: PDF download

Contact: H.J. Van der Fels-Klerx, RIKILT Wageningen UR (the Netherlands)
ine.vanderfels (at)
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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement No. 265558
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